Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館) (Engl.) (Part 5)

Japanese Porcelain at its Finest
The Toguri Collection: The Original Exhibition
(戸栗コレクション1984・1985-revival-展)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

A German version of this posting you can find here.
Eine deutsche Version dieses Artikels finden Sie hier.

If you are one of those attentive readers of this website, you’ll probably remember the various postings related to exhibitions of fine porcelain at the Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館 / とぐりびじゅつかん). Should you wish to refresh your memory or learn more about this most exquisite museum have a look at my previous articles:

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館) (Part 1)
Japanese Porcelain at its Finest

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館) (Part 2)
Japanese Porcelain at its Finest – Imari Ware
Masterpieces of the Kakiemon and Kinrande style
(柿右衛門・古伊万里金襴手展)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館) (Part 3)
Japanese Porcelain at its Finest
Masterpieces of Nabeshima Ware
(鍋島焼展)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館) (Part 4)
Japanese Porcelain at its Finest
Imari Ware – The Beauty of Sometsuke
(古伊万里 – 染付の美展)

Once again I had the opportunity to take pictures of parts of the current exhibition, thanks to Mr. Toguri, the museum’s director’s kind permission and another most entertaining and instructive tour provided by the incomparable Alice Gordenker (who also largely contributed to the narration of this positing – I know, she wanted me to have all the credit, but I have to be honest…).

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

And this time it is all about a revival of Mr. Toguri’s (the present director’s father) first exhibition in 1984 and 1985 – before the Toguri Museum of Art was even built (you may remember: the present building was only opened in 1987). But Mr. Toguri had already collected the most marvellous pieces for more than 20 years. It was time to show them! At the Shōtō Museum of Art (松濤美術館 / しょうとうびじゅつかん), a public museum run by Shibuya Ward, he found the proper place for his treasures.
His first exhibition was titled “Arita Ware from the Toguri Collection: Imari, Kakiemon, Nabeshima” and was praised for demonstrating both the internationalization and diversity in early Japanese porcelain through 108 works from Mr. Toguri’s collection. And exactly these 108 works of art are on display again in the currect exhibition. Shall we have a look together? Simply click on the miniatures seen below to enlarge them and to enjoy greater detail!

Staircase to the exhibition rooms

Imari ware (mid 17th century)
Dish with foliated rim, decorated with tiger and bamboo design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Should this lion look somewhat familiar to you, you shouldn’t be surprised. The tiger from this plate is exactly the one that is also used as the official logo of the Toguri Museum of Art.

First exhibition room

#1
Imari ware (mid 17th century)
Bottle, decorated with rock and peony design in overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This particularly precious bottle is very rightfully the first piece in this exhibition – it also graced the cover of the original exhibition catalogue of 1984. With its 47 cm of height, it is among the largest bottles produced in the mid-17th century. It is actually made of two pieces – a top piece and a bottom piece that are jointed together (see the fine line I’ve marked on one of the pictures). This technique is called “dōtsugi” (胴継ぎ / どうつぎ). With all its splendour and bold decoration, it is rather typical of early export ware.

#6
Imari ware (early 17th century)
Dish with flattened rim, decorated with landscape and pavillon design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

A very good example of “shoki imari“ (初期伊万里 / しょきいまり) – from the early days of Japanese porcelain production. The base (高大 / こうだい) of the dish is rather small – a tribute to the fact that making porcelain was still in its infancy in Japan. Had they made it any bigger, the middle portion inside would have sunk down.
Tiny cracks can be seen in the glaze, which has a bluish tint. Also it still shows lots of imperfections in the base material and even finger prints of the potter on the back of the plate.

#7
Imari ware (early 17th century)
Dish, decorated with landscape design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Here is another large plate of “shoki imari“. The brown spots on its surface are no signs of use or stains. They are simply showing the impurities in the base materials (in this case: traces of iron) that turned into brown spots during the process of firing. But to many collectors, such imperfections are part of the charm of early Imari ware. Or, as Mr. Toguri put it: „The beginning of anything is very important“, and because this sort of work was the beginning of Japanese porcelain, he collected quite a number of those pieces.
In their days, these were items of luxury and only to be owned and used by high-ranking people.

#9
Imari ware (early 17th century)
Dish with flattened rim, decorated with cloud, hare and character of “春白兎” (white hare in spring) design in sprayed blue and white

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

The design was executed using the “fukizumi“ (吹墨 / ふきずみ) technique, in which stencils (in the shape of the rabbit, the cloud and the banner) were applied to the surface and “gosu“ (呉須 / ごず) (cobalt blue) sprayed around them. This technique is often used in early Imari ware.

#14
Imari ware (mid 17th century)
Dish, decorated with geometric pattern and chained circles design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

By the middle of the 17th century designs became much more elaborate, detailed. Dishes are much thinner. And there is a historical reason for it: Political unrest in China disrupted the porcelain industry there. In the 1640s in China there were a lot of political problems, and in 1644 the Ming Dynasty fell. The great kilns at Jingdezhen, for example, were no longer able to produce. This political trouble caused two things that had a very big influence on Japanese porcelain. First of all, many Chinese porcelain workers fled China and emigrated to Japan where they could continue their craft in peace. They brought with them important new technology and designs.
The other important thing that happened is that the Dutch (who were the main importers for Europe) were no longer able to buy from China, so they turned to Japan as an alternative supplier. The first recorded shipment to Europe carried out by the Dutch dates from 1659. It also demonstrates that the Dutch were also interested in volume – more than 50,000 pieces were exported.

#17
Imari ware (mid 17th century)
Gourd-shaped dish, decorated with landscape design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

#19
Imari ware (mid 17th century)
Dish with foliated rim, decorated with tiger and bamboo design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This intriguing shape was created by throwing the clay on a wheel first and pressing it onto a mold afterwards. The fluted rim’s beautiful brownish finish is called “fuchisabi“ (縁銹 / ふちさび). Also the wide foot of the dish impressively demonstrates the advancements made in porcelain production.

#32
Imari ware (late 18th – early 19th century)
Square bottle, decorated with European figures design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Have a look at the “European figures“ on the sides of the bottle. They are supposed to look “Dutch“. But starting with the hats, one might rather be reminded on Portuguese fashion of the late 18th century. The clothes look more Chinese than European. And Europeans walking barefoot? It is more likely that the painter who created the images had never seen a European in his life (remember: Japan was not open to visitors from abroad at that time – not even the Dutch traders from Dejima were allowed to do their own „shopping“).

#40
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)
Bottle, decorated with peony and birds design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This type of large bottle, with its very wide body, was made for export and is sometimes called a “gallipot.” It has a double rim at the top of the neck, and was used with a stopper for storing liquids. The neck portion is decorated with a sword-tip design, while the main body is embellished with birds and large peony blossoms. There is an “I.C.” mark within the foot, presumably the initials of the individual who placed the order. It is possible that these are the initials of Johannes Camphuijs (at the time educated people often Latinized their names – and as there is no “J“ in the Latin alphabet, Camphuijs would have used an “I“ instead), who between 1671 and 1676 was stationed three times as “opperhoofd”, or chief negotiator and officer, at the Dutch trading post at Dejima in Nagasaki. Camphuijs later served as the Governor-General (sōtoku / 総督 / そうとく) of the Dutch East Indies, from 1684 to 1691. He developed a great fancy for anything Japanese and continued a kind of “Japanese lifestlye” even after leaving Japan.

Second exhibition room

#44
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)
Bottle with edged shoulder, decorated with peony design in overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This and the next two items are works that were made for export. The shape of these bottles is particularly interesting, it resembles an upside-down “chasen“ (茶筅 / ちゃせん), a bamboo whisk used in tea ceremony for preparing powdered green tea. Despite the fact that these bottles were mainly made for export, this one, however, was owned by Lord Maeda of Kaga, showing that there was also domestic appreciation.

#45
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)
Bottle, decorated with wisteria in overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

#46
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)

Bottle with edged shoulder, decorated with landscape and pavilion design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

#50
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)
Jar, decorated with landscape and phoenix design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Unfortunately, I was not able to take a picture of the inside bottom of the jar, as this is charmingly decorated with a long-tailed phoenix and butterflies. It is likely that this work was meant to be filled with water, like a gold-fish-jar, and the interior design was carefully planned so it could be enjoyed as seemingly floating up through the water. The Dutch imported vessels like this to be used for chilling of foods and drinks.

#51
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)
Jar, decorated with chrysanthemum and plum design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

The most interesting part of this jar is actually in its back (turned away from the visitor): It has a large hole down near the bottom, that has been filled in. This is where at some point of time something like a spout or spigot had been attached (most likely in Europe, as this way of dressing up porcelain would not have been done in Japan).

#55
Imari ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Dish, decorated with peony design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This dish in the shape of a barberbowl was also made for export to Europe, but most likely not actually used in a barber shop (as it would have been too heavy for actual use), but an item for decoration.

#56
Imari ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Dish, decorated with flower-and-bird design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This and the next item are of particular interest – not just for their lavish design, but also for the “VOC“ mark in the centre, representing the “Dutch East Indies Company”. These are typical examples for dishes made for export. It is possible that these were used at the company’s headquarters or on one of their ships.

#57
Imari ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Dish, decorated with peach and finger citron design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

#60
Imari ware (late 17th – first half of the 18th century)
Cylindrical vessel with squirrel knobbed cover, decorated with plum and peony design in underglaze blue, overglaze enamels and gold

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Have a look at the cutely captured mannerisms of the squirrel – a wonderful example of refined craftsmanship. Judging by the European style handles, this piece was probably made to order for export.

#62
Imari ware (late 17th – first half of the 18th century)
Jar with cover, decorated with Chinese lion-dog under peony, plum and chrysanthemum design in underglaze blue, overglaze enamels and gold

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Vessels in this shape are called “scent jars“ (沈香壷 / じんこうつぼ) and are characterized by a round shape with high shoulder, a raised neck with small mouth, and a domed, hat-like lid. This definitely would have been made for export, for there was no market for anything this large in Japan. It would have gone to Europe, and used just for decoration. For show, really, because porcelain imported from China or Japan was very expensive and very much a status item. In great homes and castles, they were often displayed with many pieces together, in a so-called “porcelain cabinet.”
This is an example of the “Kinrande style” (金襴手様式 / きんらんでようしき). The name refers to brocade cloth (kinran / 金襴 / きんらん) – indicating particularly sumptuous works. But if you look at it carefully, you notice that it is made with only a few colors – sometsuke blue, and the designs are quite simplified compared to the delicate brushwork of the works above. These were made to look splendid from afar, but because they weren’t actually used, like a dish, they didn’t have to be very finely decorated. And that was important, because around this time, when the Kinrande-style was popular, the porcelain industry in China had been revived, and exports from China had started again. Which means the Japanese were facing price competition from China. So they were looking for ways to produce faster and at lower cost, and this sort of simplified, repeated design was well suited for larger-scale production.

#65
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)
Vessel, Kendi, decorated with Chinese lion-dog design in overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This sort of pouring vessel, with a spout but no handle, is called a “kendi“, a word that comes from the Malay language. The Chinese began manufacturing this sort of vessel in the 14th century and they were widely used in Southeast Asia for water and alcoholic drinks. Japanese potters in Arita made them for export as well. On this “kendi“ outlines were painted in black overglaze, but much of that detail has worn off, as the black overglaze was not one of the durable ones.

#66
Imari ware (second half of the 17th century)
Ewer, decorated with peony design in relief and overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

#74
Imari ware in Kakiemon stye (second half of the 17th century)
Figure of woman, decorated with overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Here we have a fine example of the Kakiemon style (柿右衛門様式 / かきえもんようしき), which developed around the 1670s. The Kakiemon style is characterized by asymmetrical yet well balanced designs with a lot of blank space to show off the fine white base that became possible then. Predominant is the use of red, and in fact a very beautiful red that was developed around this time. This and the next item show figurines that were also very typical for the Kakiemon style. First we have one of a woman, dressed in a very stylish kimono of the times, and after that you will see a young boy. These figures would have been made in separate pieces, in molds, and fitted together before they were fired and decorated. This means they are hollow inside. And that provided an extra challenge for the potters, as the air inside the figurine would expand during firing and would have made the works explode. Unless, there was a way for the air to escape. If you look closely at the figurine of the woman, you will notice a small hole at her mouth. Just big enough to let the hot air escape.

#75
Imari ware in Kakiemon style (second half of the 17th century)
Vessel in the shape of a Chinese boy, seated on a Go board, decorated in underglaze blue and overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

The combination of a child and a Go board was most likely inspired by the “hakamagi“-ceremony (袴着 / はかまぎ) that was performed during the Edo period on a boy’s fifth birthday to pray for his continued health and growth. The ceremony involved dressing a boy for the first time in hakama (袴 / はかま), a kind of formal trousers, and placing him atop a Go board.

Third exhibition room

#79
Imari ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Bowl, decorated with a dragon among clouds and circles design in underglaze blue, overglaze enamels and gold

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Bowls in this shape are called “kabuto-bachi“ (兜鉢 / かぶとばち), because the deep, rounded shape with flattened rim resembles a Japanese military helmet (兜 / かぶと). The gorgeous colours make this one a perfect example of Imari ware in the Kinrande style (金襴手様式 / きんらんでようしき).

#80
Imari ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Bowl, decorated with a design of the immortal Qin Gao and six red circles in underglaze blue, overglaze enamels and gold

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

The center of this bowl is decorated with a design of the Daoist immortal Qin Gao, known in Japan as Kinkō Sennin (琴高仙人 / きんこうせんにん), straddling a large fish. Legend has it, that Kinkō Sennin jumped into the sea to escape a dragon and emerged from the waves riding a carp. This piece was particularly well-fired, as the porcelain base is beautifully white and the colors are rich and outstanding.

#82
Imari ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Bowl, decorated with character (寿/ju = longevity) design in underglaze blue, overglaze enamels and gold

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

The shape of this bowl is known as “komagata no hachi“ (独楽形の鉢 / こまがたのはち) or “top-shaped bowl“.

#89
Nabeshima ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Dish, decorated with collection of treasures design in underglaze blue

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Designs that suggested a positive or successful future were especially favored for Nabeshima ware (鍋島焼 / なべしまやき), which was made exclusively as gifts of tribute to the Shōgun and other high-ranking officials. The “lucky treasures“ (takarazukushi / 宝尽し / たからづくし)-design seen here carries many such auspicious meanings, and thus was frequently used. The shape resembles the mokuhai (木杯 / もくはい), the flat drinking cup for sake.

#91
Nabeshima ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Dish, decorated with Japanese maple leaves and waves design in underglaze blue and overglaze enamels

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Don’t be mistaken if you see two pictures of plates that seem to be identical. They are not! They are two of a set of 20 dishes of the same size and pattern that demonstrate the refinement achieved in the production of hand painted porcelain. You have to look were closely to find small differences in the pattern. You have learnt above, that Nabeshima ware was given as gifts for the Shōgun. And they never came as single pieces but always in large sets of the same design. One set would be two large dishes, then 20 in the size we see above (“nanasun“-size / 七寸 / ななすん), plus 20 in a smaller size, and 20 in a yet smaller size, and then 20 cups – all matching. And it wasn’t just one set of 82 matching pieces, it was 5 sets – each with 81 pieces. 400 pieces of beautiful, hand-made dishes, and all carried all the way to far, far away Edo!

#101
Nabeshima ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Dish, decorated with snow flakes design in underglaze blue and celadon glaze

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This is my all-time favourite!
In the Edo period a man named Doi Toshitsura (土井利位 / どいとしつら) made a startling discovery when he decided to look at snow under a microscope. At the time, this imported technology was still very new and rare, and no one had seen what snow looks like up close and personal. Doi spent the next 20 years studying snow crystals, working in subfreezing temperatures to make detailed drawings of individual snowflakes. In 1832, he published 183 of his drawings in a book called “Sekka Zusetsu” (A Pictorial Explanation of Snowflakes) (雪華図説 / せっかずせつ), which set off a huge fad for snowflake designs. This dish predated that – obviously – it presents snowflakes the older way. The technique used for painting the snowflakes is called “somebokashi” or “sometsuke no bokashi“ (染付の暈し / そめつけのぼかし), a technique only the most skilled potters dare to venture.

#102
Nabeshima ware (late 17th – early 18th century)
Dish, decorated with design of peaches and collection of treasures in underglaze blue and celadon glaze

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

#103
Nabeshima ware (first half of the 18th century)
Dish, decorated with seven jars design in underglaze blue and celadon glaze

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

This dish was executed using the “sumihajiki“ (墨弾き / すみはじき)-method (colour-resist method). In this technique, the fine lines of the pattern are drawn in ink, around which the sometsuke (染付 / そめつけ) underglaze is painted. The ink burns off during firing leaving white lines within the blue. The jars depicted on the dish are almost identical in shape but are decorated very differently. There are examples with two, three or five jars, as well as irregularly shaped dishes made in the shape of a jar.

#106
Nabeshima ware (18th century)
Celadon dish with blue glaze rim

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館)

The last piece in the exhibition is the one that exemplifies what one might want to call “simplicity & style“. A dish that does by no means shows its age.

Touching the precious works of art:

As it is almost some sort of “tradition“ whenever Alice Gordenker provides a guided tour of the Toguri Museum of art, also this time one of the highlights was an opportunity to view, touch and photograph up close rare museum-quality examples of Japanese porcelain from the Edo Period. The physical sensation of actually touching such old porcelain is particularly impressive, as the older the works the more “tactible” their little imperfections in their making are -but also the texture created by applied colours and enamel and being able to recognise small details was – again – astonishing. And this time an impressive example was given – particularly impressive for the Germans among us. First a plate in the refined Kakiemon style was presented, dating back to the 17th century. And later on another plate was revealed, showing almost exactly the same design and just being a touch larger. What looked like a twin sister of the previous one, was, however, a rather blunt copy produced by Meissen in German – at least 50 years later. Talking about the Asians stealing European design all the time!… Even though the basis material for the plate allowed the people at Meissen to create a much “whiter“ white, the surface of the plate left much to be desired and could not remotely compete with the Japanese original. And even though the paintings seemed identical at first glance, looking a the depicted persons revealed that the painters at Meissen had obviously never painted (or even seen) an Asian face before.

Even though such an opportunity doesn’t come everyday – the museum is worthwhile seeing nevertheless.

And if you can’t make it to this exhibition – which would be a shame – why not taking note of the forthcoming ones:

April 1st – May 14th, 2017
30th Anniversary Special Exhibition: Kakiemon

May 27th – September 2nd, 2017
Ko-Imari Masterpieces of the 17th Century

September 15th – December 20th, 2017
Ko-Imari Masterpieces of the 18th Century

January 7th – March 21st, 2018
Beautiful Glazes in Ko-Imari Ware

Address:

戸栗美術館
〒150-0046
東京都渋谷区松濤1-11-3

Toguri Bijutsukan (Toguri Museum of Art)
1-11-3 Shōtō, Shibuya-ku
Tōkyō 150-0046

The museum’s facebook link:

https://www.facebook.com/togurimuseum/

The museum’s internet representation:

http://www.toguri-museum.or.jp/english/

Opening hours:

Daily (except Mondays) from 10 am to 5 pm (last entry at 4:30 pm).
Should Monday be a national holiday, the museum stays closed the next day. Also closed during the preparation of new exhibitions and during the new year holidays.

Admission fee:

Adults: 1,000 Yen
High school and university students: 700 Yen
Junior high school and elementary school students: 400 Yen
Discounts of 200 Yen per person for groups of 20 an more visitors

How to get there:

It is probably the easiest to approach the museum from Shibuya’s main station where various train lines and subway lines stop.
Take the “Hachikō Exit“ (ハチ公口 / あちこうぐち), cross the famous “Pedestrian Scramble“ (スクランブル交差点 / すくらんぶるこうさてん) and head north towards the just as famous department store “109“, leave it on your left side and walk towards the “Bunkamura“ (文化村 / ぶんかむら). Pass the Bunkamura on its south side and turn right at its southwestern corner. The museum is located in a rather residential area uphill. It will take you at least 15 minutes to get there from the station.

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2 Responses to Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館) (Engl.) (Part 5)

  1. […] englische Version dieses Artikels finden Sie hier. An English version of this posting you can find […]

  2. […] Toguri Museum of Art (戸栗美術館) (Part 5) – Japanese Porcelain at its Finest – The Toguri Collection: The Original Exhibition – (戸栗コレクション1984・1985-revival-展) […]

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